Note: Taxonomic usage follows Nielsen et al. (1996)
For those new to the subject, taxonomic classification terms (e.g. lectotype) can be difficult to grasp. There are several websites, available through the search engines, which give good examples of use.
See Glossary Menu Section for some explanations.
hom. homonym, e.g. '(species name), author, year nec author,' year' This is specific homonymy (primary & secondary homonymy), relating to the species specific name, not the genus. Occurs when a species is given a name which is already in use
homonym e.g. '(genus name) author, year nec (genus) author, year' . This is generic homonymy - occurs when a genus name is used that is already in use
The word ordering in the above phrases indicates, first, the true type species name with the correct author followed by another species name with the author who has applied it incorrectly ('nec' means 'and not'). e.g. Pachythyris Felder, Felder & Rogenhofer (1874: pl. 75 fig. 1) [Lepidoptera] nec Pachythyris Boullier, 1976 [Brachiopoda]; generic homonymy (Cowen 1981).
New synonymy, combination and status:
syn. n. new synonymy
comb. n. new combination (not used for names in synonymy).
The association of a new combination of a generic name and a specific name to form the name of a species; or of a generic name with a specific name and a subspecific name to form the name of a subspecies.
stat. n. a change to a new status for a species or subspecies
comb. rev. Refers to a species ‘put back again’ into the genus in which it was originally described.
gen. rev. generic name removed from synonomy & re-established as a valid name
sp. rev. species name removed from synonomy & re-established as a valid name
stat. rev. indicates reinstatement of earlier used status.
Unavailable & excluded names:
infrasubsp. infrasubspecific name
misspel. incorrect spelling
subs. misspel. incorrect subsequent spelling
sic quoted as spelled
orig. misspel. incorrect original of multiple original spelling
praeoc. unavailable name, first published in synonymy
nomen nudum a name with no traceable description
suppr. suppressed name; or name first published in suppressed work.
e.g. Suppression of Bohadsch J. B. (1761) De Quibusdam Animalibus Marinis, and of the German translation thereof published by Leske N. B. in 1776. From: Opinions & Declarations 185 Rendered by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (1944) 3: 37-49.
unavail. publ. syn. unavailable name, first published in synonymy & never validated by subsequent use.
auctt. misidentification by several/most/all earlier authors. From . auctoris (also spelt auct.)
misident. sensu (author, year)
an important misidentification by a particular author
Replacement names (objective synonyms):
emend. unjustified emendation
just. emend. justified emendation
repl. name objective replacement
intro. accident. accidently introduced species
intro. delib. deliberately introduced species (for biological control, etc.)
et al. ‘And others’, eg other authors on a paper
nec ‘and not’
s.lat. sensu lato (in the wider sense)
s.strict. sensu stricto (in the strict sense)
Abbreviations of institutions:
ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia.
ARC Agricultural Research Centre, Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia
BM(NH) Former name of the Natural History Museum, London
DVFC Danum Valley Field Centre. On the boundary of the DVCA (Danum Valley Conservation Area)
FACE The Face Foundation, Arnhem, The Netherlands. FACE stands for ‘Forest Absorbing Carbon Emissions’
FRC Forest Research Centre, Sepilok, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
ITBC Institute for Tropical Biology & Conservation UMS, Sabah, Malaysia
Malay: Institut Biologi dan Tropika Pemuliharaan - IBTP
IZAS Institute of Zoology, Academica Sinica, Beijing, P.R. China.
Leiden (= RMNH or RNH) Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie or National Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Holland (now also known as ‘Naturalis’).
MNH Paris Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
MNHU See ZMB [Berlin]
NHM Natural History Museum, London, UK. Formerly the British Museum (Natural History) (BMNH)
NHV Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
NSM National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan.
UM Oxford University Museum, formerly the Hope Department, University of Oxford, UK
UMS Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
USNH National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA.
ZMB Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt- Universität, Berlin. (= MNHU Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt- Universität)
W. Malaysia West Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia
Q Australia; Queensland
NSW Australia; New South Wales
NT Australia; Northern Territory
WA Australia; Western Australia
N, S, E, W North, South, East & West & combinations e.g. S.E. = south-east etc.
asl Above sea level
BRL Borneo Rainforest Lodge, Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia.
DVCA Danum Valley Conservation Area(Danum Valley Field Centre - DVFC - is on its edge)
FR Forest Reserve
GTE Genting Tea Estate, Pahang, West Malaysia (in the central mountain spine of W. Malaysia. Site of the CFS, or Central Forest Spine, conservation initiative)
InfaPro Innoprise-FACE Foundation Rainforest Rehabilitation Project (Danum Valley, Sabah)
LP Helicopter Landing Place (some areas of the Ulu Temburong in Brunei are only accessible this way, e.g. Bukit Retak, Gunung Priok)
MRP Mega Rice Project (see Glossary)
NP National Park
PNG Papua New Guinea
VJR Virgin Jungle Reserve
WS Wildlife Sanctuary
Bkt. Bukit (hill)
BP before present
c. circa, (approximately)
FW Fore wing
Gg; Gng; Gn Gunung (mountain)
HW Hind wing
Hwg Holzweg (German), forestry road, (often an Eduard W. Diehl collecting locality)
ICZN International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature
Kg kampong (village)
my million years
Sg. sungei (river)
sp. . species (singular), spp. (plural)
ssp. subspecies (singular), sspp (plural)
HSB Dato’ Henry S. Barlow
TMW Dr. Terence M. Whitaker
SLS Dr. Stephen L. Sutton
CATS: database of caterpillars feeding on New Guinea plants (Miller et al, 2007).
HOSTS database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants (Robinson et al., 2001).
Fig. Figure (singular), figs. (plural)
LepIndex http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/lepindex. Important digitised NHM card index system (Beccaloni et al. 2003). A key reference resource for this website
RTS Robinson, G.S.,Tuck K.R. & Shaffer, M. (1994); A Field Guide to the Smaller Moths of South-east Asia, Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur & The Natural History Museum, London.
HSB Coll. Private Collection of ‘Dato’ Henry S. Barlow
JHRT Coll. Private Collection of Dr. J.H.R. Thiele, Dettenheim.
SLS Coll. Private Collection of Dr. Stephen L. Sutton & Dr. Terence M. Whitaker
Schulze Coll. Private Collection of Dr. Christian H. Schulze
[ ] Added information, usually derived from external evidence
 1865 This results from delays in publication. The date of actual publication is in [ ], derived from evidence external to the work itself, followed by the title-page date (the date on which it was supposed to have been published).